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Billing and Payment

In Greenfield, users are required to pay two different types of fees:

  • Firstly, every transaction will require gas fees to pay the Greenfield validator to write the metadata on-chain as described in Gas and Fee part.
  • Secondly, the Storage Providers (SPs) charge the users for their storage service. Such payment also happens on the Greenfield.

The storage service fee will be charged on Greenfield in a steam payment style like Superfluid.

Storage Service Fee

There are two kinds of storage service fees in Greenfield: object storage fee and data package fee.

For storage, every object stored on Greenfield is charged at the price calculated by size, replica numbers, a base price ratio, and other parameters. Once the object is stored, the total charge of storage will be mainly only related to time and the base price.

The storage fee calculation is:

Storage Fee = sum(ChargedSize) * (PrimaryStorePrice + SecondaryStorePrice*SecondarySPNumber) * (1+Validator Tax Rate) * ReserveTime

Users are granted a free, time-based quota for downloading data, with each bucket corresponding to a set of their objects. If the quota is exceeded, users can upgrade their data package to obtain an additional quota. The price for each data package is fixed for a certain period (unless the read price has been changed and the user takes some actions to reflect the price change), during which users will only be charged based on the amount of time they spend downloading and the package price. This charging scheme remains in effect until the user modifies their data package settings.

The download quota fee calculation is:

Download Quota Fee Fee = ChargedReadQuota * ReadPrice * (1 + Validator Tax Rate) * ReserveTime

Global Virtual Group Family & Global Virtual Group

For storage fees, it will be not streamed to storage providers directly. It will be streamed to:

  • Global Virtual Group Family’s virtual funding address for data package fee and primary sp’s object storage fee
  • Global Virtual Group’s virtual funding address for all secondary sp’s object storage fee
  • Validator tax pool for extra tax fee (e.g. 1%), which will be used for rewarding data availability challenge submitters.

When storage providers want to get their income, they can withdraw from Global Virtual Group Family and Global Virtual Group they are in. The validator tax pool cannot be controlled via any private key, and is used for challenge reward.

Payment Account

By default, the object owner’s address will be used to pay for the objects it owns. But users can also create multiple “payment accounts” and associate objects to different payment accounts to pay for storage and bandwidth.

The address format of the payment account is the same as normal accounts. It’s derived by the hash of the user address and payment account index. However, the payment accounts are only logical ones and only exist in the storage payment module. Users can deposit into, withdraw from, and query the balance of payment accounts on the Greenfield blockchain, but users cannot use payment accounts to perform staking or other on-chain transactions. Payment accounts can be set as “non-refundable”. Users cannot withdraw funds from such payment accounts.

Paymaster

Besides using the owner’s address or payment accounts to pay for the storage and bandwidth, users can also use others’ address or payment account by setting the payment account for the bucket. The owner of payment account need to set the flow rate limit for the bucket before the bucket can be used.

This will lower the barrier for users to use Greenfield since they don’t need to have BNB to pay for the storage and bandwidth and they don’t need to understand the charging mechanism of Greenfield which is quite complex.

It will also provide a possibility for projects to sponsor the storage and bandwidth for their users.

For more details, you can refer to the BEP of the paymaster.

Downgraded service

Once the payment accounts run out of BNB, the objects associated with these payment accounts will suffer from a downgraded service of downloading, i.e. the download speed and connection numbers will be limited. Once the fund is transferred to the payment accounts, the service quality can be resumed right away. If the service is not resumed for a long time, it is the SPs’ discretionary decision to clear the data out, in a similar way to how SPs claim to stop services to certain objects. In such a case, the data may be gone from Greenfield completely.

Warning

If users fail to renew their subscription on time, there is a risk of their stored data being permanently deleted.

Trust or Shift

In Greenfield, there is trust between the users and the SPs for data download.

Since downloading bandwidth incurs additional fees and the download journal is not completely stored on the Greenfield blockchain, SPs offer an endpoint interface for users to access detailed logs and downloaders’ signatures for download billing. If the users and the SPs cannot agree on the bill, users may just select another Primary SP.

For more tech details, please refer to the stream payment module design.

Gas and Fees

This document describes how Greenfield charge fee to different transaction types and the token economics of BNB Greenfield.

Introduction to Gas and Fees

In the Cosmos SDK, gas unit is designated to track resource consumption during execution.

On application-specific blockchains such as Greenfield, computational cost of storage is no longer the main factor in determining transaction fees, but rather, it is the incentive mechanism of Greenfield. For instance, creating and deleting a storage object use similar I/O and computational resources, but Greenfield encourages users to delete unused storage objects to optimize storage space, resulting in lower transaction fees.

Greenfield Blockchain has taken a different approach from the gas meter design in Cosmos SDK. Instead, it has redesigned the gashub module to calculate gas consumption based on the type and content of the transaction, rather than just the consumption of storage and computational resources.

Unlike networks like Ethereum, Greenfield transactions do not feature a gas price field. Instead, they consist of a fee and a gas-wanted field. The gas price is inferred during the transaction pre-execution process by fee/gas-wanted, and the transactions are queued based on the gas price, besides that the gas price should not be less than the minimum gas price on Greenfield: 5gwei.

Warning

This means that Greenfield does not refund any excess gas fees to the transaction sender.

Therefore, when constructing transactions, it is important to exercise caution when specifying the fees.

GasHub

All transaction types need to register their gas calculation logic to gashub. Currently, four types of calculation logic are supported:

MsgGasParams_FixedType:

type MsgGasParams_FixedType struct {
    FixedType *MsgGasParams_FixedGasParams 
}

MsgGasParams_GrantType:

type MsgGasParams_GrantType struct {
    GrantType *MsgGasParams_DynamicGasParams 
}

MsgGasParams_MultiSendType:

type MsgGasParams_MultiSendType struct {
    MultiSendType *MsgGasParams_DynamicGasParams 
}

MsgGasParams_GrantAllowanceType:

type MsgGasParams_GrantAllowanceType struct {
    GrantAllowanceType *MsgGasParams_DynamicGasParams 
}

Block Gas Meter

ctx.BlockGasMeter() serves as the gas meter designed to monitor and restrict gas consumption per block.

However, certain types of transactions may incur a high cost in Greenfield, leading to significant gas consumption. Consequently, Greenfield refrains from imposing any gas usage constraints on a block. Instead, Greenfield sets a block size limit, preventing blocks from exceeding 1MB in size and mitigating the risk of excessively large blocks.

Info

There is no gas limitation of a block on Greenfield Blockchain.

Fee Table

Please note that the gas fee can be updated through governance and may not be immediately reflected in this documentation.

Msg Type Gas Used Gas Price Expected Fee(assuming BNB $200)
/cosmos.auth.v1beta1.MsgUpdateParams 0 5 gwei $0.00000000
/cosmos.bank.v1beta1.MsgUpdateParams 0 5 gwei $0.00000000
/cosmos.consensus.v1.MsgUpdateParams 0 5 gwei $0.00000000
/cosmos.crisis.v1.MsgUpdateParams 0 5 gwei $0.00000000
/cosmos.crosschain.v1.MsgUpdateParams 0 5 gwei $0.00000000
/cosmos.crosschain.v1.MsgUpdateChannelPermissions 0 5 gwei $0.00000000
/cosmos.distribution.v1beta1.MsgUpdateParams 0 5 gwei $0.00000000
/cosmos.gashub.v1beta1.MsgUpdateParams 0 5 gwei $0.00000000
/cosmos.gov.v1.MsgUpdateParams 0 5 gwei $0.00000000
/cosmos.mint.v1beta1.MsgUpdateParams 0 5 gwei $0.00000000
/cosmos.oracle.v1.MsgUpdateParams 0 5 gwei $0.00000000
/cosmos.slashing.v1beta1.MsgUpdateParams 0 5 gwei $0.00000000
/cosmos.staking.v1beta1.MsgUpdateParams 0 5 gwei $0.00000000
/greenfield.bridge.MsgUpdateParams 0 5 gwei $0.00000000
/greenfield.sp.MsgUpdateParams 0 5 gwei $0.00000000
/greenfield.storage.MsgUpdateParams 0 5 gwei $0.00000000
/greenfield.payment.MsgUpdateParams 0 5 gwei $0.00000000
/greenfield.challenge.MsgUpdateParams 0 5 gwei $0.00000000
/greenfield.permission.MsgUpdateParams 0 5 gwei $0.00000000
/cosmos.authz.v1beta1.MsgExec 1200 5 gwei $0.00120000
/cosmos.authz.v1beta1.MsgRevoke 1200 5 gwei $0.00120000
/cosmos.bank.v1beta1.MsgSend 1200 5 gwei $0.00120000
/cosmos.distribution.v1beta1.MsgSetWithdrawAddress 1200 5 gwei $0.00120000
/cosmos.distribution.v1beta1.MsgWithdrawDelegatorReward 1200 5 gwei $0.00120000
/cosmos.distribution.v1beta1.MsgWithdrawValidatorCommission 1200 5 gwei $0.00120000
/cosmos.feegrant.v1beta1.MsgRevokeAllowance 1200 5 gwei $0.00120000
/cosmos.gov.v1.MsgDeposit 1200 5 gwei $0.00120000
/cosmos.gov.v1.MsgSubmitProposal 2000000 5 gwei $2.00000000
/cosmos.gov.v1.MsgVote 2000000 5 gwei $2.00000000
/cosmos.gov.v1.MsgVoteWeighted 2000000 5 gwei $2.00000000
/cosmos.oracle.v1.MsgClaim 1000 5 gwei $0.00100000
/cosmos.slashing.v1beta1.MsgUnjail 1200 5 gwei $0.00120000
/cosmos.staking.v1beta1.MsgBeginRedelegate 1200 5 gwei $0.00120000
/cosmos.staking.v1beta1.MsgCancelUnbondingDelegation 1200 5 gwei $0.00120000
/cosmos.staking.v1beta1.MsgCreateValidator 2000000 5 gwei $2.00000000
/cosmos.staking.v1beta1.MsgDelegate 1200 5 gwei $0.00120000
/cosmos.staking.v1beta1.MsgEditValidator 2000000 5 gwei $2.00000000
/cosmos.staking.v1beta1.MsgUndelegate 1200 5 gwei $0.00120000
/greenfield.bridge.MsgTransferOut 1200 5 gwei $0.00120000
/greenfield.sp.MsgCreateStorageProvider 2000000 5 gwei $2.00000000
/greenfield.sp.MsgDeposit 1200 5 gwei $0.00120000
/greenfield.sp.MsgEditStorageProvider 2000000 5 gwei $2.00000000
/greenfield.sp.MsgUpdateSpStoragePrice 2000000 5 gwei $2.00000000
/greenfield.sp.MsgUpdateStorageProviderStatus 1200 5 gwei $0.00120000
/greenfield.storage.MsgCreateBucket 2400 5 gwei $0.00240000
/greenfield.storage.MsgDeleteBucket 1200 5 gwei $0.00120000
/greenfield.storage.MsgMirrorBucket 1200 5 gwei $0.00120000
/greenfield.storage.MsgUpdateBucketInfo 1200 5 gwei $0.00120000
/greenfield.storage.MsgCreateObject 1200 5 gwei $0.00120000
/greenfield.storage.MsgSealObject 120 5 gwei $0.00012000
/greenfield.storage.MsgMirrorObject 1200 5 gwei $0.00120000
/greenfield.storage.MsgRejectSealObject 12000 5 gwei $0.01200000
/greenfield.storage.MsgDeleteObject 1200 5 gwei $0.00120000
/greenfield.storage.MsgCopyObject 1200 5 gwei $0.00120000
/greenfield.storage.MsgCancelCreateObject 1200 5 gwei $0.00120000
/greenfield.storage.MsgUpdateObjectInfo 1200 5 gwei $0.00120000
/greenfield.storage.MsgDiscontinueObject 2400 5 gwei $0.00240000
/greenfield.storage.MsgDiscontinueBucket 2400 5 gwei $0.00240000
/greenfield.storage.MsgCreateGroup 2400 5 gwei $0.00240000
/greenfield.storage.MsgDeleteGroup 1200 5 gwei $0.00120000
/greenfield.storage.MsgLeaveGroup 1200 5 gwei $0.00120000
/greenfield.storage.MsgUpdateGroupMember 1200 5 gwei $0.00120000
/greenfield.storage.MsgUpdateGroupExtra 1200 5 gwei $0.00120000
/greenfield.storage.MsgRenewGroupMember 1200 5 gwei $0.00120000
/greenfield.storage.MsgMirrorGroup 1200 5 gwei $0.00120000
/greenfield.storage.MsgPutPolicy 2400 5 gwei $0.00240000
/greenfield.storage.MsgDeletePolicy 1200 5 gwei $0.00120000
/greenfield.storage.MsgMigrateBucket 1200 5 gwei $0.00120000
/greenfield.storage.MsgCancelMigrateBucket 1200 5 gwei $0.00120000
/greenfield.storage.MsgCompleteMigrateBucket 1200 5 gwei $0.00120000
/greenfield.payment.MsgCreatePaymentAccount 200000 5 gwei $0.20000000
/greenfield.payment.MsgDeposit 1200 5 gwei $0.00120000
/greenfield.payment.MsgWithdraw 1200 5 gwei $0.00120000
/greenfield.payment.MsgDisableRefund 1200 5 gwei $0.00120000
/greenfield.challenge.MsgSubmit 1200 5 gwei $0.00120000
/greenfield.challenge.MsgAttest 100 5 gwei $0.00010000
/greenfield.virtualgroup.MsgCreateGlobalVirtualGroup 1000000 5 gwei $1.00000000
/greenfield.virtualgroup.MsgDeleteGlobalVirtualGroup 1200 5 gwei $0.00120000
/greenfield.virtualgroup.MsgDeposit 1200 5 gwei $0.00120000
/greenfield.virtualgroup.MsgWithdraw 1200 5 gwei $0.00120000
/greenfield.virtualgroup.MsgSettle 1200 5 gwei $0.00120000
/greenfield.virtualgroup.MsgSwapOut 24000 5 gwei $0.02400000
/greenfield.virtualgroup.MsgCompleteSwapOut 24000 5 gwei $0.02400000
/greenfield.virtualgroup.MsgCancelSwapOut 1200 5 gwei $0.00120000
/greenfield.virtualgroup.MsgReserveSwapIn 1200 5 gwei $0.00120000
/greenfield.virtualgroup.MsgCancelSwapIn 1200 5 gwei $0.00120000
/greenfield.virtualgroup.MsgCompleteSwapIn 1200 5 gwei $0.00120000
/greenfield.virtualgroup.MsgStorageProviderExit 1200 5 gwei $0.00120000
/greenfield.virtualgroup.MsgStorageProviderForcedExit 1200 5 gwei $0.00120000
/greenfield.virtualgroup.MsgCompleteStorageProviderExit 1200 5 gwei $0.00120000
/greenfield.virtualgroup.MsgUpdateParams 1200 5 gwei $0.00120000
cosmos.authz.v1beta1.MsgGrant 800 + 800 per item 5 gwei $0.0008 per item
cosmos.bank.v1beta1.MsgMultiSend 800 + 800 per item 5 gwei $0.0008 per item
cosmos.feegrant.v1beta1.MsgGrantAllowance 800 + 800 per item 5 gwei $0.0008 per item

For more details, you can refer to Greenfield Gas Params.